Members

The following 16 countries are members of the Federation of European Deer Farmers Association. Membership is open to all EU national deer farmers associations and other European countries with Management Committee approval. Although national associations must continue to be responsible for the interests of their own members, FEDFA is recognized as the first point of contact for matters affecting deer farming on a European and International basis.

You are a member of FEDFA, but your country is not listed on this website yet? Then please fill out the form you can find under this link: http://fedfa.d.trnc.wtf/

Member countries

Deer farming in Austria has a long history. The agricultural keeping of deer has been documented since the 1st century. In the Middle Ages, Fallow deer were kept in royal parks because of their tender and digestible meat; always to be able to offer fresh deer meat at any opportunity. But then over the centuries that way of keeping deer disappeared. In the 1980ies some farmers who were seeking a new way of utilizing grassland for meat production started farming Fallow deer again. In order to support these pioneers, regional associations of deer farmers were founded. The first group to get together was the Organisation of Deer Farmers in Upper Austria in 1981. Then associations in other regions of Austria followed.
Number of farms in the association
868
Number of animals
17900
Proportion of fallow deer
52%
Proportion of red deer
43%
Average farm size
6 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
21
Price breeding hinds
€700
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€500
Price breeding stags
€1500
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€900
Price venison
25
Customers
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Sale of live animals
Grants / Subsidies
Single Farm Payment (according to GAP 2014-2020) up to € 285/ha
Slaughter Systems
Farms
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Ante-mortem inpsection by 'compentent person'
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Competent person training is available
Yes
Jürgen Laban
Gut Jägerhof, Taschenstr. 24; 8102 Semriach
00436644300613
office@laban.co.at
ABÉC, Association Benelux pour Éleveurs de Cervides, represents Belgium and Luxembourg. There are 60 members of ABÉC from Belgium, 8 from The Netherlands. The number of deer on farms in Belgium is between 1000 and 1100 hinds. Officially, 1485 persons are known as owners of deer (Ministry of Agriculture). We have exact figures of the number of deer kept on 55 Belgian farms and 6 from The Netherlands.
Number of farms in the association
61
Number of animals
1100
Proportion of fallow deer
%
Proportion of red deer
%
Average farm size
hectare
Average number of animals per farm
Price breeding hinds
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
Price breeding stags
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
Price venison
Customers
Grants / Subsidies
Slaughter Systems
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Dr. Paul Audenaerde
Marquettepolderstraat 1
3250500666
info@cervus-europe.com
Deer Farmers’ Association of the Czech Republic (DFAC) Prepared by Radim Kotrba, Václav Pařízek and Luděk Bartoš The first deer farm in the former Czechoslovakia was founded in 1983 and was immediately included in governmental research programme led by Prof. Luděk Bartoš at the recent Institute of Animal Science, Prague. During 1989, after the issue of the final report of the research programme, was organised the first national meeting on deer farming. The increasing interest and number of deer farmers resulted in establishment of the Association of deer farmers of the Czechoslovakia during meeting in Čejč in 1992. During this meeting a member of BDFA Dr. John Fletcher gave an invited plenary talk on deer farming. After the first year of existence the association had 53 members and started to release the Newsletter. After the split of Czechoslovakia into the Czech and Slovak independent republics the Association changed the name to Czech and Slovak Association of deer farmers, when in 1995 after the increasing differences in legislation and topics to solve the Slovaks resigned of membership in the Association. Since that time the association has been named the Deer Farmers’ Association of the Czech Republic (DFAC). During FEDFA meeting in Vienna in 1997 the DFAC became a full member of FEDFA as the first post-communist country. After the initial 11 years Luděk Bartoš resigned from presidency of DFAC and in 2003, Václav Pařízek MSc. was elected to chair the association. At the same time, the subject Deer Farming was introduced into the specialized education programme at the Czech University of Life Sciences in Prague. The DFAC supported by FEDFA organized the 6th International Deer Biology Congress, Prague 2006. The DFAC is proud member of the Association of Private Farming of the Czech Republic since 2011. Václav Pařízek has been leading association until the end of 2017, when general assembly entrusted Dr. Radim Kotrba (Maugli) with leadership. The DFAC unites the deer farmers and deer farming sympathizers to provide information about knowledge of deer biology and farming practices, changes in national and European legislation, commercial possibilities, and representing deer farming in FEDFA to its members. The DFAC leading board organise annual meetings, publishing the Newsletter, runs seminars, courses and lectures of visiting experts in deer biology and/or deer farming, organizes trips to visit deer farmers abroad. Last but not least DFAC lobby for deer farming in the local legislation process. The present activity is trying to legalise slaughter of deer on farm for home consumption without veterinary inspection and to permit organic deer farming in the Czech Republic. The DFAC represents 117 members at 2017. Total number of farms has reached 817 at the end of 2016 in the country with two-thirds of fallow deer and one-third of the red deer farms keeping together about 18 700 animals.
Number of farms in the association
117
Number of animals
18700
Proportion of fallow deer
68%
Proportion of red deer
32%
Average farm size
10 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
24
Price breeding hinds
€400
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€180
Price breeding stags
€750
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€579
Price venison
8
Customers
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Sale of live animals
Porážka zastřelením (head or neck shot by free bullet and exsanguination); porážka omráčením jateční pistolí a vykrvením (slaughter by captive bolt stunning and exsanguination)
Grants / Subsidies
Area based payments (Pillar I of CAP)
Slaughter Systems
Legistation
There is a distinction in the national legilsation between Farms and Park-farms
Park-Farms
Ante-mortem inpsection by 'compentent person'
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by 'competent person'
Farms
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
and also by competent person with specific license
Competent person training is available
Yes
Dr. Radim Kotrba
Miskovice 38, 285 01, Czech Republic
00420739003929
maugli46@volny.cz
Deer farming started in Denmark in the early 1980’s. Today there are approximately 650 farms with an estimated population of 12,000 breeding does (Fallow deer) and 2000 breeding hinds (Red deer). Deer kept on deer farms are classified as domestic stock and the meat produced (venison) is veterinary inspected ante- and post-mortem and classified as red meat. The annual production of farmed venison is approximately 100 tonnes, which is all domestically consumed. 200 tonnes of farmed venison is imported, mostly from New Zealand. Production systems are very simple due to the seasonal nature of the deer. Calving always takes place in May/ June (Red deer) or June/ July (Fallow deer). The calves are typically weaned either pre-rut (30%) or post-rut (50%) and then wintered and fed separately from the breeding herd, either in stables on straw bedding or in a sheltered paddock. Aside from certain management advantages, one of the most important features of housing the calves is the taming effect. Since 1st August 1993 housing of deer has been banned in Denmark. On most farms multi-sire mating is used. Only a few farms tag the calves at birth, register calf-dam relations and monitor growth rates in the calves and yearlings. The health status of the national deer herd is very high. After having imported Bovine Tuberculosis in deer in the mid-eighties, Denmark was the first country in the world to implement and complete a compulsory eradication programme for TB on deer farms. Research and Advisory Services The research and development activities in the area of cattle and small ruminants was carried out in close co-operation between the Department of Research in Cattle and Sheep at NIAS and the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, other Universities in Denmark and abroad, national and private research institutes, farmers’ organisations and associations and private companies within the trade. There is close co-operation between the advisory services and the research institutes. This contributes to the relevance of research results and to an efficient and quick transfer of results to practice. The National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) has conducted a research programme on deer farming since October 1985. Research has concentrated on production systems for calves and yearlings for slaughter, and the resulting impact on economy and overall farm management. The main objective has been to spread the slaughter season to supply fresh venison on a year-round basis and thus improve competition with imported frozen venison. The effect of different winter feeding and housing systems, with or without subsequent summer grazing, on feed intake, growth and feed efficiency, has been assessed. The effect on carcase quality, meat quality and eating quality (using taste panel assessment) has also been evaluated. Results have shown that it is possible to slaughter Red deer stag calves/ yearlings from December, at 5 months of age, through till August at 14 months of age, without negative effects on carcase quality, meat quality or eating quality. Fallow deer buck calves should be slaughtered at lower carcase weights if slaughtered from the stable, compared to slaughter from pasture, in order to avoid over-fatness. In the period 1989 - 1992 a national advisory service on deer farming was set up. Three local cattle advisors have been appointed and have specialised in advice on deer production. They rely on the Institute’s deer farming expertise for the solution of any problems occurring. The Institute is still supervising national activities. The advisory service was organised by the farmers’ organisations and managed by the users, i.e. the farmers, and consists of two levels, national and local. Due to the depression and the declining profitability in deer farming in the late nineties, the deer farmers have shown a falling interest in co-operation with the advisory services.
Number of farms in the association
170
Number of animals
Proportion of fallow deer
%
Proportion of red deer
%
Average farm size
hectare
Average number of animals per farm
Price breeding hinds
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
Price breeding stags
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
Price venison
Customers
Grants / Subsidies
Slaughter Systems
Park-Farms
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Farms
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Asger Wiuff Andersen
Tolstrupvej 4
4524911100
aa@rawa.dk
DEER FARMING IN GERMANY Fallow deer farming started in 1972 at the Haus Riswick Research Station of the Landwirtschaftskammer Rheinland. The aim was to develop healthy animals for ecological use as an alternative to cattle and sheep on grassland. Today there are nearly 6000 farms in Germany with 180000 deer, 90% Fallow deer, with Red and Sika deer. The average size of the farms are 2.5 hectares. The main regions for Fallow deer farming are Bavaria and Northrhine- Westfalia. In order to farm deer in the Federal Republic of Germany one still requires a licence. The criteria laid down by the Federal Ministry are as follows: the minimum size is one hectare; it is prohibited to include wood in the farm area; normally eight to ten does per hectare and slaughter on the farm is allowed. Carcases are controlled by meat inspection and stamped. There is mostly home marketing with relatively high prices for fresh meat with top quality coming from 14-18 months old young animals. GERMAN DEER FARMERS ASSOCIATION The Federal German Association "Bundesbank für landwirtschaftliche Wildhaltung" - BLWwas founded in 1980, with the first regional association in 1978. The 12 regional members in the different areas of the Federal Republic of Germany, representing about 1500 members with mostly small farms of around 2-3 ha, are independent. Since 1984 the magazine"Landwirtschaftliche Wildhaltung" has been published. It informs about the latest news and activities five times per year. The Federal Association contacts the government, different ministries, the German Farmer's Association "Deutscher Bauernverband" and is a member of FEDFA. Each province has special advisers for deer farming, and holds conferences and courses on different subjects. RESEARCH The first pilot farms were started in 1994 in Northrhine. In Haus Riswick, at the Research Station in Grub/Bavaria, and in other university institutes. Different trials are carried out on fencing, feeding, handling, behaviour, marking, twin breeding, domestication, adaptibility of Sika and White-tailed deer, for farming, lighting for calves, slaughtering,meat and leather quality, veterinary diseases and econiomics. Books and other information about Fallow deer farming are published by the „Bundesverband für Landwirtschaftliche Wildhaltung“ (BLW). MARKETING The consumption of venison in the Federal Republic of Germany is about 33000 tonnes annually, 0.6 kg per head.The home production of venison is about 16000 tonnes (wild boar meat about 10000 tonnes, Red deer venison about 2900 tonnes, Fallow deer venison about 1000 tonnes) of which about 1800 tonnes are farmed - mostly-Fallow deer meat. The imports are about 17000 tonnes (12000 tonnes red deer venison and farmed game meat) mainly from New Zealand, Poland and CSFR. Imports from Eastern Europe are increasing and at low prices. DEVELOPMENT For almost 50 years Fallow deer farming in Germany has been the agricultural system that makes the most ecological use of grassland without subsidies for a growing market. This top product is very nutrition-conscious, of excellent taste and quality, without contamination by chemicals and drugs, correctly slaughtered and cooled. The consumer is able to look for the animals he wants on local grass farms in his region. An expansion of deer farming is therefore possible and desirable.
Number of farms in the association
1900
Number of animals
38000
Proportion of fallow deer
80%
Proportion of red deer
13%
Average farm size
2.5 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
20
Price breeding hinds
€200 - €650
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€80 - €380
Price breeding stags
€500 - €4667
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€150 - €1200
Price venison
15
Customers
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Sale of live animals
Grants / Subsidies
GAP-payment (1. Säule) circa 300€/ha
Slaughter Systems
Farms
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Competent person training is available
Yes
Stefan VÖll
Claire-Waldoff-Straße 7
00493031904297
s.voell@bauernverband.net
“Latvian wild animal breeders association” founded in 2000, 8th March, with 18 members, within 17 years association grown till 40 members. “Latvian wild animal breeders association” coordinate and manage Latvian deer breeding. Not all deer farms cooperate with association, in Latvia could be approximately 100 deer farms. From december 2016 name of association is "Organic farmers and Wild Animal Breeders Association" (OFWABA of in latvian BLSDAA)
Number of farms in the association
100
Number of animals
10800
Proportion of fallow deer
20%
Proportion of red deer
80%
Average farm size
80 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
150
Price breeding hinds
€800
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€400
Price breeding stags
€1000
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€650
Price venison
0
Customers
Sale of carcass is skin to processors
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Sale of live animals
Grants / Subsidies
Hectar payments
Slaughter Systems
Legistation
There is a distinction in the national legilsation between Farms and Park-farms
Park-Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Ante-mortem inpsection by 'compentent person'
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by 'competent person'
Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Qualified hunter
Competent person training is available
Yes
Dainis Paeglitis
"Saulstari", Mores parish, Sigulda district, LV-2170
0037126539222
deerparks@inbox.lv
Number of farms in the association
Number of animals
Proportion of fallow deer
%
Proportion of red deer
%
Average farm size
hectare
Average number of animals per farm
Price breeding hinds
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
Price breeding stags
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
Price venison
Customers
Grants / Subsidies
Breeding animals within parks in the present Lithuania territory was first mentioned in source books in 1397. Heards were used for Duke's hunts, but in some specific cases (e.g. in cases of war) they were a place for holding an emergency ration of meat. Red deer were widely distributed in Lithuania until the 17th century. Unfortunately in the beginning of 18th century, red deer disappeared. However in the beginning of 20th century animals escaped from park heards, spread into the forests and gave rise to a restoration process. Fallow deer were brought to Lithuania in the 16-17th centuries. They were bred in enclosures and served as decoration for parks. Later on fallow deer disappeared. The present population was bred from fallow deer which were brought from Czechoslovakia and Soviet Union in 1976-77. Sika deer were brought to Lithuania from Russia's Far East Gorno-Altaysk region deer farm in 1954 and from Chechen-Ingushya and the Vladivostok region in 1990. During the Soviet period enclosures were used to enrich the hunting fauna, only in the last decade enclosures oriented towards the production of venison or velvet antlers have appeared. Currently there are 10 enclosures with a total area of 1000 hectares. Approximately 1000 animals are kept here. The market for sika deer velvet antlers is marginal; now the main income is from trophy hunting and venison production. Red deer farms are in the stage of formation. A breeding herd has been formed from indigenous individuals living in the wilderness. Fallow deer farms are oriented towards hunting. In 1999 a group of devotees established "The Association of Deer Farmers" (Elniu Augintoju Asociacija-EAA). Its main task is to fill the information gap about intensive deer farming. The Lithuaninan EAA is an associated member of FEDFA. A large amount of free fallow land and the benevolence of state authorities could create perfect conditions for the establishment of new deer farms. However, the critical social and economical situation in rural areas and the lack of breeding animals are the main reasons which deter this process. In spite of this, the deer farming industry in Lithuania apperars to be very promising.
Slaughter Systems
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Gediminas Vaitiekunas
Naugarduko 68b, Vilnius
37061013999
gediminas@skaidula.lt
The Association for Dutch Deer Farmers is founded in February 2001, and has a memership of average 16 members the last couple of years. Mainly Red Deer, held on farms, outdoor, with an indoor facility for the winter. Most of the meet is sold in farm shops and to local restaurants
Number of farms in the association
16
Number of animals
800
Proportion of fallow deer
10%
Proportion of red deer
90%
Average farm size
15 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
50
Price breeding hinds
€400
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€200
Price breeding stags
€1500
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€500
Price venison
0
Customers
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Grants / Subsidies
Not for deer farming only the Brussels subsidies CAP and Greening subsidy Payment for young farmers/starters Payment for nature/countryside control (such as nest-protecting etc) All these subsidies have very strict rules, and are not for everybody
Slaughter Systems
Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Qualified hunter
Mrs. Annelies Timmerman
Oosterstraat 21, 1654 JK Benningbroek Netherlands
0031651219915
info@hertenhouders.nl
Unlike the rest of Europe, Norway has no history of keeping deer in parks, but we know that red deer were kept as semi-domesticated animals on the coast of Nordland in the Middle-Ages. During the first part of the 20th century, Fallow deer were imported from Europe to a few locations. Later some animals have crossed the border from Sweden into southeast Norway. In Norway people became seriously interested in deer farming in the early 1980s, just after New Zealand’s success in this area became known. The first deer-farm was established in 1984, and in 1988 Norsk Hjorteavlsforening (NHF - Norwegian Deer Farmers Association) was founded. Status 2014, NHF has a total of 110 members. There are 92 deer farms, about 85% of which breed Red deer and 15% breed Fallow deer. The average deer-farm has a herd of about 40 female deer. In 2013 deer farmers were responsible for providing the Norwegian market with nearly 170 tons of venison. In addition Norwegian hunters culled more than 38 000 wild Red deer every year, providing another 2000 tons. Since Norwegians eat more than 300.000 tons of meat per year, Norwegian deer farming has great potential. Average price pr kg: 15-20 Euro, mostly private customers, a few restaurants occasionally Subsidies; Depending on the land etc; but an average about 30% of the total income on the farm. (Farming in general in Norway average 60%, (vary from 10-150%)) About 30 private Slaughterhouses that take care of the 90 farms Good relation to authorities, AM 72 hours, PM inspection within one day, price 10Euro/animal. Practicing 853 and 854 is mostly ok, some regions are more strict than others. Deer farming is a growing business in Norway, but will hardly become a big industry. The policies of the Norwegian Government regarding deer farming have become increasingly more favorable in recent years, a fact that will help to increase the number of farms in Norway. The NHF promotes improvements in deer farming and coordinates regulations relating to animal welfare and breeding. In connection with government’s annual agricultural settlement, the NHF lobbies for increased settlements and favourable policies for deer farming. The NHF also publishes NHF-news four times a year, and runs a web-page, www.hjorteavl.org. The annual general meeting aims to gather all deer farmers in Norway, and is located in different parts of the country, and sometimes abroad. It is always combined with seminars and courses.The Norwegian Red Deer Centre, www.hjortesentret.no, is a private resource centre for everyone interested in Red deer, whether they are farmed or wild. Managing director Johan Trygve Solheim (past president FEDFA) was the previous webmaster of the FEDFA website
Number of farms in the association
92
Number of animals
Proportion of fallow deer
0%
Proportion of red deer
85%
Average farm size
hectare
Average number of animals per farm
Price breeding hinds
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
Price breeding stags
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
Price venison
15
Customers
Grants / Subsidies
Slaughter Systems
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Morten Nystad
Austadveien 209, 3748 Siljan
4797612282
morten@siljanhjort.no
The first deer breeding facility in Poland was the deer farm „Kosowo Górne”. This was an experimental facility of the Polish Academy of Science, department of parasitology, set up in 1984, which conducted studies related to the infestation of ungulates by parasites and the suitability of different ungulate species for domestication. This facility provided much of the stock for most of the deer breeding farms or parks which were created in Poland at or shortly after the turn of the Millenium. However, the real expansion of Polish deer breeding took place after Poland joined the EU. Farmers, looking for new niche activities were interested to use poor agricultural land for deer breeding, with the promise of sales of meat, skins and antlers. Many small extensive deer breeding farms or parks were created. In the main, these small-area farms kept fallow deer. Unfortunately, unnecessarily restrictive Polish veterinary laws accompanied by insufficient governmental infrastructure support has made small-scale deer breeding in Poland uneconomic. The current inappropriate law threatens the entire sector, The Polish Association of Deer Breeders is working with government to make the legislation more friendly to farmers, while at the same time shortening the producer/consumer supply chain. However, this is proving to be a lengthy process.
Number of farms in the association
200
Number of animals
22.000
Proportion of fallow deer
66%
Proportion of red deer
34%
Average farm size
10 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
110
Price breeding hinds
€500
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€200
Price breeding stags
€700 - €2000
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€400 - €600
Price venison
0
Customers
Sale of carcass is skin to processors
Sale of live animals
Grants / Subsidies
No grants or subsidies for deer breeding.
Slaughter Systems
Park-Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
No specific legislation
Jerzy Gabrielczyk
ul Dorohuska 17, 01-472 Warsaw, Poland
0048226669704
pipdeal@poczta.onet.pl
The "Russian Deer Breeders Association" was established in 2013. 2015 the Association became a member of FEDFA. Recently there has been growing interest in establishment of deer farms in Russia. It's very promising, because in Russia there are a lot of territories, suitable for deer farming. Prospects are growing. There are still a lot of potential domestic investors. The "Russian Deer Breeders Association" tries to organize exchange of information and to give full support to beginners, offering a full complex of services: from choice and inspection of the territory, profitability calculations, development of infrastructure to purchasing of breeding stock, deer management and optimization of expenses. Beginners – members of our Association have opportunity to visit the best farms of the world, to get acquainted with the most advanced methods and technologies of deer farming and breeding. The "Russian Deer Breeders Association" helps farmers, deer breeders, producers of venison in realization and promotion of their products in the market of wild animals meat, bread and produced on farms.
Number of farms in the association
15
Number of animals
3000
Proportion of fallow deer
10%
Proportion of red deer
90%
Average farm size
200 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
200
Price breeding hinds
€1000
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€800
Price breeding stags
€1200
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€1000
Price venison
30
Customers
Sale of carcass is skin to processors
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Sale of live animals
Grants / Subsidies
Breeding of all species of deer behind fences in Russia is an animal husbandry, that means, that investors of deer farms have an opportunity to apply for such subsidies, which receive farmers, engaged in animal husbandry.
Slaughter Systems
Park-Farms
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Farms
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Qualified hunter
Natalia Sorokina
Quarter Shchitnikovo 73 G, Balashikha, Moscow region, 143906 Russia
0079269361076
admin@dba.org.ru
Miroslaw Madejski
Quarter Shchitnikovo 73 G, Balashikha, Moscow region, 143906 Russia
0079262118521
admin@dba.org.ru
The Slovak Association of Deer Farming was established in 2008 and at the beginning there were 46 farm breeds registered in Slovakia. Today there are more than 500 registered farm breeds in Slovakia, mainly fallow deer, red deer and mouflon. The Slovak Association of Deer Farming is a non-profit organization that brings together farmers and farm/game preserve animals for the purpose of professional guarantee in all breeding and technology spectrum. The SADF has specialized sections such as genetics, farm breeding, gamekeeping, nutrition and welfare/veterinary.
Number of farms in the association
516
Number of animals
10180
Proportion of fallow deer
60%
Proportion of red deer
30%
Average farm size
3.5 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
25
Price breeding hinds
€1000
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€300
Price breeding stags
€3000
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€1200
Price venison
8
Customers
Sale of carcass is skin to processors
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Grants / Subsidies
no special subsidies for farm animals
Slaughter Systems
Legistation
There is a distinction in the national legilsation between Farms and Park-farms
Park-Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Ante-mortem inpsection by 'compentent person'
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by 'competent person'
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by 'competent person'
Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Competent person training is available
Yes
Jaroslav Pokorádi, Ph.D.
Suvorovova 30, Pezinok, 902 01 Slovakia
00421902916241
pokoradi@hotmail.com
In 1990 Maria Paternottre-Exteberria, representing Spain was part of the founders of FEDFA. At that time there were only 4 deer farmers in Navarra and Guipuzcoa. It was not until 1999 that she founded the Vasco-Navarra Deer Breeders Association, but in 2001 she left the Association and it apparently became extinct.

In southern Spain was completely different. In the early 60s, hunting became very popular and started commercialized. So, the foundation of big game private and fenced "hunting estates” proliferated. With a minimum of 500 ha, currently the law does not allow to fence an area smaller than 1.000 ha. It is estimated that in Spain there are 35.000.000 ha of "hunting estates" spread over some 30.000 estates, of which 3.000 would be for big game. Usually composed of lands that do not even serve for traditional livestock farming, they support very low densities, around 0.2-0.6 deer/ha. These traditional hunting estates themselves are economically unprofitable and their owners keep them for personal reasons or for social relations.

However, the popularity of hunting during the 80s, facilitated that in the early 90's, the breeding of wild boars and red deer, became a regular activity within the large commercial hunting preserves (usually between 1.000 and 12.000 ha) where a small area (50-400 ha) is dedicated for farming: red deer, wild boar, mouflon, etc. .. in smaller fences with supplementary feeding, health treatments and playback control for genetic improvement. However, density usually is lower than 2 hinds per hectare, but since the vast majority of animals in the "farm" are females, the increase of animals available to be hunted in the hunting estate, is sometimes doubling the hunting quotas, transforming it in an economically viable estate. This special type of "hunting estates" was legally recognised in Castilla-La Mancha through the Hunting Law 2/1993 Article 64 as "Industrial exploitation" and later they were regulated through the 1996 Hunting Regulations.

At the same time, the figure of the "hunting farm" was also recognized as "industrial exploitation" as well. So both types of industrial exploitations for breeding wild ungulate were regulated by the same hunting Regulations. However, both have been devoted almost exclusively to breed animals to set them free in hunting estates. Animals cannot be hunted in farm fences by law.

We don't know with certainty the number of alive animals that may be in Spain but we can get an idea based on annual catches and their evolution over recent years. The number of total catch since 1980 has grown at an annual rate of 24%. This indicates that not enough animals are hunted annualy in Spain in order to maintain a stable population of these species.

 Over a total amount of captures in 2010-2011 hunting season of 411.649 animals, 54% of all are from wild boar, 32% from Red deer, 7’5% of Roe deer, 3% of Fallow deer and 2% of mouflon, the rest of species with less than 2%. Only 3 regions accumulate nearly 60% of the total catches; Castilla-La Mancha (23% over total, 35% of Red deer y 40% of Fallow deer) Andalucía (22% over total, 37% of Red deer y 39% of Fallow deer) y Extremadura (12% over total, 21% of Red deer y 11% of Fallow deer)

In any case, once they have been hunted, animals (mainly deer and wild boar) are eviscerated in the same "hunting estate" or slaughtered at the "hunting farm" and carcasses, always with skin, are bought by professional butchers, who have specialized in collecting this type of meat at prices ranging from 0,8 to 2,4 €/kg.

A few years ago was founded the "interprofessional bushmeat agency" and "the bushmeat market" as official agencies to try to adjust prices and avoid big fluctuations in the prices. In any case, there is no price differentiation between carcases of animals hunted on driven hunts, from the ones of that animals that have been hunted on stalking, on await or slaughtered by a blow on the head and bleeding close to the refrigerator truck.

The vast majority of carcasses with skin goes just to a few wholesalers very professionalized that are capable of processing up to 2.000 carcases in a weekend and export near to 90% of its production to Germany. Only a very small percentage is consumed in local markets.

So far, have been rare and few the farms which have been breeding animals for venison. But in any case, these deer farms has not yet been recognized as traditional livestock, so they are not included on national programs for the eradication of diseases like any other traditional livestock and are still ruled by the laws of hunting. However, there is a national regulation mandatory for all animals to be transported alive, to verify that they are free of a number of diseases categorized in the Royal Decree 1082/2009, of July 3, laying down animal health requirements for the movement of animals from hunting estates, ungulate farms, zoological and wildlife.

To complicate the situation, the responsibility for hunting are not dependent on Central Government of Spain, but the regional governments, it means that in Spain there are currently 17 different hunting laws. Which complicates much know what is the exact situation in each of the 17 regions of Spain. But in any case deer farming does not receive subsidies.

Currently you can already find farms of all game ungulates, but in all cases the vast majority are dedicated to selling live males for hunting use in preserves, being only some females (of Red and Fallow deer) sacrificed, in the same farm, for venison.At the AGM of FEDFA in February 2013 Dr. Thomas Landete was named vice 2nd of FEDFA and Pedro Corell was accepted to be representative of Spain as future President of the Spanish Association of Wild Ungulate Breeders - AECUS. The association was formally established in late 2013. While there are several associations of landowners and holders of hunting and livestock associations, AECUS is the only national association representing hunting estates and hunting farms specifically for the production of venison. In July 2014 the Association became known publicly and was presented it's website www.aecus.org
Number of farms in the association
Number of animals
Proportion of fallow deer
%
Proportion of red deer
%
Average farm size
hectare
Average number of animals per farm
Price breeding hinds
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
Price breeding stags
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
Price venison
Customers
Grants / Subsidies
Slaughter Systems
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Dr. Tomas Landete-Castillejos
Uni. Castilla-La Mancha, 
02071 Albacete
349675992002621
tomas.landete@uclm.es
Antonio Canones
Canones Servicios Cinegeticos SL.
34629887997
antonio@canones-caza.com
Number of farms in the association
270
Number of animals
30000
Proportion of fallow deer
%
Proportion of red deer
%
Average farm size
hectare
Average number of animals per farm
Price breeding hinds
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
Price breeding stags
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
Price venison
Customers
Grants / Subsidies
For several centuries deer have been kept within fences in special parks for decorative and hunting purposes - in Sweden as elsewhere in Europe. Fallow deer were imported to Sweden, probably from England, around 1580 by King Johan III and quickly became the dominant species, but Red deer of Swedish extraction were also important inhabitants of the parks. In fact Swedish Red deer no doubt were saved from extinction by those few gentry who kept them safeguarded in parks surrounding their manors.   Since 1971 the Swedish  Deer Farmers Association (SHA) has been promoting deer farming in Sweden. The original association only had 20 members and today we count close to 10 times as many. Progress in deer farming has been done in several areas and today we can look on ourselves as one of the countries in Europe having regulations which are agreed as reasonable among most farmers.   SHA have made it possible to join a volunteer TB eradication program which will give Sweden a TB free status by the year of 2005 (?). As a result of the TB eradication program the number of active deer farmers has decreased and they now number less than 400. From the year 2000 the Swedish farmers union (LRF) are also supporting the Swedish Deer Farmers Association who are looked upon as one of the possible niche producers making it possible to stay on the farm and have a profitable income from it.   Demand and consumption of deer meat are steadily increasing. Prices of farmed deer meat are firm though New Zealand imports are taking most of the market share. As a result and to meet future marketing problems a group of farmers are taking the first difficult steps and have started a profit co-operative. The main challenge in the future will be to organize all the Swedish Deer farmers into marketing companies or groups to get a structured approach to the growing demand of consumers.
Slaughter Systems
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Katrin Hansson
Andreas Svensson
Deer farming in Switzerland started in 1979 with a 5 year Project of the Government in 5 different parts of Switzerland. Out of this Project in 1982 was formed the Swiss Deer keeper Association (SVH). The situation with the Farmed Products, like Milk, Meat(Pig, Beef), and all others, with high Production Cost and low Prices makes a lot of Farmers to look around and find another Production to make. Fish, Wild Game, or change to Organic Farming with less Output and better Prices are high in Ranking. Right now, almost every Year we have 20 new Farmers how want to make the Training for deer farming (6 full Day's, 300 h with a Mentor) to obtain the Certificate form the Government to keep legal the 5 different Species, Red deer, Sika deer, Fallow deer, Wapiti, Rein deer in Switzerland. Not all Parks and Farms are Members of the SVH. Averige of Animals and ha are for total Switzerland.
Number of farms in the association
227
Number of animals
11000
Proportion of fallow deer
85%
Proportion of red deer
10%
Average farm size
3 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
25
Price breeding hinds
€590
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€545
Price breeding stags
€910
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€590
Price venison
10
Customers
Sale of carcass is skin to processors
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Sale of live animals
Grants / Subsidies
- no Subsidies on Animal - Subsidies on Farmland /Grasslands - Subsidies for special cultures (Sugarbeets, real Grain, Rye, Rape, Flax, Grape, etc.) - Subsidies for special Treatment (no Plow, no Till, Careful manure spreding, etc. - Oekological Elements (Hedges, Stonehills, Trees, Breedingplaces for Birds,
Slaughter Systems
Park-Farms
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Competent person training is available
Yes
Christoph Luder
Feldstrasse 2, 3365 Grasswil
0041792330719
info@swissdeerefarm.com
Oliver Bürgi
Gästehaus Probstenberg, 4716 Welschenrohr
0041793725710
buergi.mo@gmail.com
Modern deer farming has developed from work done at the Rowett Research Institute in Scotland in the early 1970s Encouraged by the need for diversification in agriculture there was an initial boom in livestock prices but the industry suffered severe competition from venison imported from both Eastern Europe and New Zealand, this led to a reduction in price to a more realistic level. As a result the number of deer farmed and the number of farms has fluctuated. There was an increase in the total number of farmed deer from 36 000 in 1989 to 55 000 in 1993, of these approximately 50% were breeding hinds. Total numbers then fell back in 1995 to the 1989 total, falling a further 10% giving a total herd in 1998 of 32 000 on 311 farms. Now there is approximately 30,000 farmed deer on 200 farms. The national Red deer herd represents 95% of the total, the balance are Fallow. The market has recently become stronger and there is renewed confidence in the industry with wholesale prices for farmed venison carcases around £5.50 per kg.
Number of farms in the association
200
Number of animals
30000
Proportion of fallow deer
5%
Proportion of red deer
95%
Average farm size
60 hectare
Average number of animals per farm
300
Price breeding hinds
€500
Price breeding does (fallow deer)
€300
Price breeding stags
€2000
Price breeding bucks (fallow deer)
€1000
Price venison
5.5
Customers
Sale of carcass is skin to processors
Sale of meat direct to consumer
Sale of meat direct to retailer supplying consumer (this includes restaurants)
Grants / Subsidies
Deer farming and Deer parks qualify for subsides and grants of varying degree.
Slaughter Systems
Park-Farms
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by 'compentent person'
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Farms
Transport to and slaugther in approved abattoir
Slaughter on site with free bullet following Ante-mortem inspection
Ante-mortem inpsection by veterinarian
Sale by breeder to local market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Sale by breeder to any market allowed after post-mortem inspection by veterianarian
Slaughter by free bullet may be performed by
Competent person
Competent person training is available
Yes
Daniel DeBaerdemaecker
Penns Estate Venison, plumyfeather farm, lye green, Tunbridge Wells, East Sussex
00447715524154
debaerdemaecker.deer@gmail.com